Darjeeling Himalayan Railway
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is the world’s oldest mountain steam train. Opened in 1881, with careful maintenance and loving care, it remains still in active service. The track gauge is 61cm. The last stop, Darjeeling, is at 2143 metres. It takes eight hours to climb the 2000 metres between.
Nilgiri Mountain Railway
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a 46-km long metre-gauge single-track railway in Tamil Nadu State was first proposed in 1854, but due to the difficulty of the mountainous location the work only started in 1891 and was completed in 1908. This railway, scaling an elevation of 326 m to 2,203 m, represented the latest technology of the time.
Kalka Shimla Railway
The Kalka Shimla Railway, a 96-km long, single track working rail link built in the mid-19th century to provide a service to the highland town of Shimla is emblematic of the technical and material efforts to disenclave mountain populations through the railway.
All three railways are still fully operational.